Preheat oven to 375 degrees F. With a mortar and pestle, slightly crush caraway seeds and peppercorns. (Or combine caraway seeds with peppercorns in a blender; cover and blend on high for 30 seconds.) Stir in lemon peel and salt; set aside.
Rinse the chicken body cavity; pat dry with paper towels. Skewer neck skin of chicken to back; tie legs to tail. Twist wing tips under back. Place chicken, breast side up, on a rack in a shallow roasting pan. Rub caraway mixture over entire bird and under skin of breast. If desired, insert meat thermometer into center of an inside thigh muscle. (The thermometer should not touch bone.)
Roast, uncovered, for 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hours or until drumsticks move easily in their sockets and chicken is no longer pink (180 degrees F). Remove chicken from oven. Cover; let stand for 10 minutes. Carefully drizzle lemon juice over chicken before carving. If desired, serve with lemon slices.