In a medium saucepan combine vinegar, sugar, water, salt, cloves, and star anise. Heat, stirring occasionally, until simmering. Pour hot vinegar mixture over sliced peaches in a large heatproof bowl and let stand for 2 hours. Drain peaches, discarding liquid.
Line an 8x4x2-inch loaf pan with plastic wrap. Place about 1/2 of the peaches in the bottom of the loaf pan; top with half of the goat cheese, spreading evenly. Repeat with remaining peaches and goat cheese. Place plastic wrap on top of the peaches in the loaf pan. Place another loaf pan on top of ingredients and weigh down with 2 cans of food. Chill overnight. Remove terrine from loaf pan and slice with a serrated knife to serve. If desired, serve with greens, drizzle with olive oil, and top with thyme.