In a 4-quart Dutch oven, bring a large amount of lightly salted water to boiling; add potatoes. Return to boiling; add pasta. Cook, uncovered, about 12 minutes or until potatoes and pasta are tender; drain.
Meanwhile, in a large skillet, cook garlic and anchovy paste in hot olive oil about 1 minute or until garlic is tender. Add undrained tomatoes and the brown sugar. Bring to boiling; reduce heat. Simmer, uncovered, for 5 minutes, stirring occasionally. Stir in half of the cheese. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
Divide arugula leaves among serving plates. Top with pasta mixture then tomato sauce. Sprinkle with remaining cheese. Makes 4 main-dish or 8 side-dish servings.