In a 6- to 8-quart Dutch oven place whole chicken and chicken pieces. Add quartered onions, ginger, coriander seeds, sugar, salt, and cloves. Remove leaves and tender stems from cilantro; set aside. Add the remaining stems to pot. Add enough cold water to cover. Bring just to simmering over medium heat. Skim off any foam. Simmer, uncovered, for 35 to 40 minutes or until chicken is no longer pink (180F in thigh).
Remove whole chicken from pot; continue simmering onion mixture. When chicken is cool enough to handle, remove meat from bones. Return skin and bones to pot. Simmer for 1-1/2 hours. Using two forks, pull chicken apart into coarse shreds. Cover and chill shredded chicken until needed. Strain broth through two layers of 100-percent-cotton cheesecloth placed in a colander; discard solids. Skim fat from broth. Return broth to pot; stir in fish sauce.
Meanwhile, soak noodles in warm water about 20 minutes or until pliable; drain and set aside.
To serve, place noodles in a large saucepan of boiling, lightly salted water to heat. Drain and divide noodles among warmed large bowls. Top with green onions. Add shredded chicken to broth; heat through. Ladle broth and chicken over noodles. Serve with the reserved cilantro, bean sprouts, basil, mint, jalapeno peppers, lime wedges, and chili sauce.