In a Dutch oven cook pasta according to package directions. Drain; reserve 1/4 cup pasta water. Return pasta to the pot. Add Parmesan cheese; toss to combine. Add enough of the reserved pasta water that pasta is evenly coated with cheese.
Meanwhile, in a large saucepan cook onion in hot oil over medium heat until tender, about 5 minutes. Add garlic; cook 30 seconds more. Add undrained tomatoes, artichoke hearts, salt and pepper. Cook and stir until slightly thickened. Mash slightly with a wooden spoon.
To serve, top pasta with tomato mixture and basil leaves. Sprinkle with additional grated Parmesan cheese, if desired.