Learning how to replace a toilet is surprisingly easy—although it involves careful attention to detail. We've broken down the process into seven easy-to-follow steps, plus gathered a few extra tips, to help you through the task. Before you begin, make sure you can recognize the different parts of a toilet and know how to turn off your bathroom's water supply.
Ensure that the floor where the toilet will be located is level. If not, you will have to use shims to level the toilet after it is set. Then measure from the wall to the hold-down bolt. Most drains will be either 12 or 10 inches; buy the appropriate-size toilet, or purchase a special offset closet flange.
To learn how to replace a toilet, you need to get rid of the old toilet. Start by shutting off the water. Then flush the toilet and remove any remaining water with a sponge. Disconnect the water-supply line and unscrew the hold-down nuts. If the hold-down nuts are rusted tight, try penetrating oil to loosen them. Or cut the nuts with a hacksaw. Then lift the toilet out and remove the used wax ring.
Carefully remove the new toilet bowl from its packaging, and turn it upside down on a cushioned surface, such as a rug or folded drop cloth. Run a rope of plumbers putty around the perimeter of the bowl's base, and fit a wax ring (sold separately) over the outlet opening. Ensure that the four hold-down bolts are in good shape—replace them if needed.
Return the bowl to its upright position, and gently set it in place atop the closet flange. Make sure the hold-down bolts align with the holes in the base. Press down on the bowl firmly with both hands and align it, allowing the wax ring to compress and seal around the flange. Slip a metal washer and a nut over each bolt; tighten slowly. Don't overtighten or you could crack the bowl.
First, lay the spud gasket, beveled side down, over the bowl inlet opening. This forms the seal between the tank and the bowl. Or slip the spud gasket onto the threaded tailpiece located at the bottom of the tank if you have older-style connectors.
Gently lower the tank onto the bowl, aligning the tank holes with those toward the rear of the bowl. Secure the tank to the bowl with the hold-down bolts, washers, and nuts provided with the toilet. Be sure the rubber washer goes inside the tank under the bolt.
Complete the installation by hooking up the water-supply line. The easiest way is to use a flexible plastic or chrome-braided supply line. Or use chrome-finish flexible copper tubing and compression fittings.
To remove an old toilet seat, lower the seat and cover, and pry up the little lids that cover the toilet-seat bolts. Hold the nut from below, unscrew the bolts, and lift out the seat. Clean out the area around the bolt holes, and install the new seat by aligning the seat with the holes and installing the bolts. Screw nuts onto the bolts, and tighten the bolts just enough to firmly hold the seat.
If your floor surface is more than half an inch above the closet flange (as will happen when you install new tile), you must extend the flange so it's flush with the floor. A closet flange extender with flexible gaskets and a plastic extender ring makes up the difference. Clean off old wax, insert new bolts, and slip on a flexible gasket and the extender ring.
The closet flange extender should fit flush with the surface of your new flooring. (If it does not, add an additional extender ring.) Add the second flexible gasket. This gasket takes the place of the wax ring. Most kits also include handy plastic shims for leveling the toilet once it is placed on the hold-down bolts.
If your toilet isn't working properly, it's in your best interest to try and troubleshoot the problem before you call a professional. Most repairs can be done yourself and take less than an hour to complete. Before you begin any project, place a drop cloth on the floor and set the tank lid aside.
To determine what's wrong with your toilet, start by looking under the tank lid. If flushes are incomplete, check that the water level reaches the proper level—an inch or less from the top of the overflow tube. If the toilet constantly hisses or if water seeps into the bowl, the tank water level may be too high. The excess water is slowly overflowing into the overflow tube and into the bowl. Adjusting the water level is usually a simple matter. In some cases, however, the fill valve may need to be repaired or replaced.
There are some of the most common toilet troubles, plus tips on how to fix them:
There are some situations where you may have a bigger problem than just learning how to replace a toilet. That means you may have to call a plumber. Those include: