Some people develop an immune reaction to a certain protein produced in the sebaceous glands of a dog's skin. This allergen is found in a dog's dander -- the minute scales of dead skin that dogs are constantly shedding. Allergens are also present in a dog's saliva and urine and are deposited on her fur when she licks herself. When the fur dries, the microscopic particles flake off and become airborne, making it easy for them to get into your nose (and lungs).
Dog allergens are very sticky, adhering to clothing, furnishings, and walls. The allergens can also stay in the air for hours and remain potent for weeks.
If you are experiencing allergic symptoms like wheezing, sneezing, or rashes, consult an allergist. There are many types of allergies, and yours may not be pet-related. If you turn out to be allergic to dogs, your allergist can design an appropriate regimen of medications, alternative therapies, or allergy shots to alleviate much of your suffering.
Though there is no cure for allergies, you can make life a lot more pleasant by adhering to these simple guidelines.
All dogs produce dander so there are no "hypoallergenic" breeds. Some breeds shed their skin every three or four days and others every 21 days. The dogs that shed less frequently produce less dander. Breeds that have a single-layer coat usually produce less dander than double-coated dogs. Here is a list of breeds that may produce less dander.