Get a jump on next spring with these maintenance tips that will help you close down your garden for the season.
Winter will be here before you know it. Making sure your garden is tidy now will leave you with less work when the snow melts and the garden is ready to come back to life in the spring. That's why preparing your garden for winter is a necessity. Thanks to these garden cleaning tips and tricks, your garden will be ready to go.
Winterizing your garden also means saving seeds. Most of the annual seeds can be gathered, placed in paper envelopes, carefully labeled, then stored in a cool, dry, dark place until they are needed the following spring. All annual ornamental grasses are perfect for seed saving, as well as bishop's weed, winged everlasting, borage, creeping zinnia, tithonia, Johnny-jump-up, bells-of-Ireland, most tree mallows, California poppy, and starflower.
Saving your seeds of most hybrid annuals is a thankless task because not all of next year's flowers will be up to the standards of this year's cultivars; each year they will either get smaller in size or lose much of their color, or both. And it's impossible to tell which seedlings will be acceptable until they bloom (although some cultivars such as 'Lime Green' flowering tobacco will flower true to type).
The end of summer is the time to watch for ripening seedpods to be dried for winter bouquets. It's the time of the year when flowers seem to sense the approach of cool weather and often burst forth with a last round of bloom. The colors seem brighter against the sharp blue skies that appear as temperatures fall and the air trades that misty softness of summer for the crystalline clarity of autumn.
As the days grow shorter, you will be surprised by the strength of some of your annuals. The leaves of the various strawflowers (many have their origins in Australia) may shrivel with the increasing cold of autumn, but their stiff petals of bright orange, red, yellow, or white resist the advances of frost, continuing to glow in the morning sun of early fall. The flowers of the poppy may be gone, but the marvelous seedpods are still there. Fall brings out the glorious colors of the flowering cabbages and kales, plants that need the nip of frost not only to grow but also for their colored leaves to shine. Then there are the pansies; they'll bloom all winter in areas of the country where winters are mild, but will even persist in northern gardens until almost the end of the year, or until snows get too deep for casual walks to the garden. Sweet alyssum, too, will keep flowering far into fall.
This is the time of the year to think about moving some of the geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) into pots and taking them indoors to a sunny windowsill for winter bloom. Some annuals, such as bedding begonias or ageratums, can be dug up and placed in small pots, where they will continue to produce flowers until the very short days of December. Polka-dot plants (Hypoestes phyllostochya) are really tropical perennials and are easily moved to indoor pots for the winter. Even marigolds will fight the advancing seasons and bring a spot of gold to the living room.
If you have a greenhouse, a sunporch, or room in the basement for a light garden, you can take cuttings of many annuals to start new plants.
Where winters are cold, tender bulbs must come out of the ground in fall to be stored indoors. Dig up dahlia tubers after the first frost has blackened their leaves. Cut off the stems a few inches above the circle of tubers, remove as much soil as you can, and let them dry for a few days. Then you can brush off the remaining soil. Sort the tubers according to flower color, and store them in paper bags or boxes in a cool, dry place until the following spring. Save gladiolus corms in the same manner, and don't forget to dig up the large black tubers of four-o'clocks (Mirabilis jalapa), as well as the thick rhizomes of all the cannas.
Stem cutting is essential for new and healthy-growing plants and allows the newly-cut roots to take in more nutrients.
Cut Healthy Stems: Cut these stems about 3 to 5 inches long using your garden shears, slicing just below the point where a leaf stalk joins the stem.
Remove Damaged Plants: Make sure to remove any damaged leaves and flowers, and neatly cut off any bottom leaves.
Fill With Soil: Fill up a seed flat or some pots with dampened sterile soil or a potting mix. Tamp it down, then make a hole with a pencil to three-quarters of the pot's depth.
Insert Cutting: Insert the cutting into the soil, making sure that the base of the stem is in contact with the dirt at the bottom. Then firm the soil around the stem.
Place in Plastic Bag: Put the potted plant in a plastic bag with the opening at the top. Seal the bag with a twist of wire to create a tiny greenhouse. Put the container in bright light but not direct sun.
Keep Soil Moist: Keep soil watered, but never soggy. In about two to three weeks, give the cutting a slight tug to check if rooting has commenced. If it hasn't, pull out the cutting to see if the end has started to rot. If everything looks healthy, try again, but make doubly sure that the stem bottom is in contact with the soil; it needs this stimulus to start new roots. You may even wish to dip the end of the cutting in rooting hormone powder.
After saving as many annuals as you can and safely storing the bulbs and tubers for the coming spring, there is still cleanup work in the garden. Perhaps you have collected some bushel baskets or plastic trash bags full of leaves that fell from your or your neighbor's trees. After shredding, either add them to the compost heap or, using a small cultivator, mix them into the garden soil so that they can decay over the winter and grace the soil for spring.
Weed Dead Plants: Before the temperatures really plummet, pull out all the dead plants, carefully shake off all the dirt you can, and move them to the compost heap. At the same time, take care of those late-growing weeds.
Rake Soil: After weeding out dead plants, carefully rake the soil, and neaten up the edges. This will help new soil come to the surface and provide your plants with healthy, fresh soil to thrive on.
Clean Garden Tools: Wind up the garden twine, and wash your garden gloves. Clean and coil the hoses, wash off the dirt, and collect all those labels that now dot the garden. Then go indoors, make a good cup of tea or coffee, gather your new seed catalogues, and get ready for the wonderful year ahead.