Growing your own cucumbers is liking growing your own summertime treasure beneath winding vines and textured leaves. Whether you use them pickled or fresh, whole or sliced, cucumbers add a delicious flavor boost to your meals. Just one cucumber plant produces plenty of fruits of all shapes and sizes, especially when you keep them steadily picked.

By Deb Wiley
Updated June 04, 2019

It's one of the many delights of summer to grow cucumbers of every shape and size right in your own backyard. Whether you're looking for a fresh salad topper or want to make your own jarred pickles, it's hard to beat the fresh flavor and convenience of homegrown cucumbers. As long as you plant cucumbers in the right location and feed the plant a considerable amount of water, growing cucumbers is a simple task to master.

When considering where to plant cucumbers, choose a location that gets eight or more hours of sun per day. Planting cucumbers begins when the soil is at least 70 degrees F at a depth of 1 inch. Cucumber seeds can't germinate in cold soil. Add compost or a balanced 10-10-10 time-release fertilizer to the soil before planting.

Cucumbers need at least 1 inch of water or rain every week. Soak the ground completely when watering instead of watering lightly more frequently.

Starting Cucumbers from Seed

Cucumbers are easy to grow from seed. Direct-sown cucumbers do better than plants started indoors because of the risk of disturbing the taproot when transplanting.

To plant cucumbers from seed, sow 1 inch deep 2 to 4 inches apart, or plant slightly mounded hills 3 feet apart with four or five seeds in each hill. Once seeds germinate, remove the weakest two or three seedlings to allow the stronger plants to thrive. Leave enough room for the vines to sprawl, or insert a cucumber trellis, such as a section of wire fence into the ground at planting time for vines to climb up on.

Pickling vs. Slicing

Before you plant, decide which type you want. Some cucumbers grow on 6-foot-long vines that sprawl on the ground or are trained to climb on a cucumber trellis or other structure. Bush varieties grow 2 to 3 feet wide and are well suited for smaller gardens.

Although cucumbers are often labeled for pickling or slicing, either type suits both uses. Picklers grow short and wide with thin skins and black spines. Slicers grow long and slender with smooth skins and are typically the kind you'll find in salads. Types that are grown commercially have thicker skins to survive shipping.

Some slicing cucumbers are marketed as burpless cucumbers. This long and slender variety has a thin peel that is known to be easier to digest since it contains small amounts of cucurbitacin, a natural compound found in the peel and stem end of a cucumber which is known to cause burping and indigestion. To minimize burping, peel cucumbers and avoid using the inch closest to the stem. Wash your knife if you've used it to peel the skin, and rinse the fruit with water before slicing.

Although we think of cucumbers as having green skin, some varieties are ripe when white or yellow. Lemon cucumbers have yellow skin and grow even rounder than lemons—but still taste like cucumbers.

Growing Cucumbers in Pots

Choose cucumber varieties labeled as dwarf or patio types. Use a soilless potting mix; garden soil is too dense for containers. Sow seeds directly into the potting mix at least 4 inches from the edge of the pot. A 3-gallon container planted with three seeds is a good size. Pots less than 12 inches wide and deep are too small to successfully host cucumbers. Insert a trellis or cage into the pot at planting time to hold the vines. Place the pot where it receives at least 8 hours of full sun per day, and keep the soil moist but not wet.

Is Cucumber a Fruit or a Vegetable?

It's a fair question: Are cucumbers fruits or vegetables? Cucumbers technically are fruits because they develop from a flower and contain enclosed seeds. Avocados, beans, peapods, corn kernels, grains, nuts, olives, peppers, pumpkins, squashes, sunflower seeds, and tomatoes are also fruits.

Cucumber Pests and Problems

A common issue with growing cucumbers is low fruit production caused by cold or rainy weather or low numbers of pollinators. Bees and other pollinators are needed to move pollen from the male cucumber flowers to the female flowers. To attract pollinators to your yard, avoid insecticides and grow a variety of plants. You can also choose cucumber varieties that have only female flowers and don't need pollinators; these are labeled gynoecious and parthenocarpic.

If your plants suddenly die, you may have bacterial wilt disease spread by cucumber beetles. Squash vine borers can decimate the vines—remove borers by hand and destroy them. Cucumber mosaic virus can infect plants. So if you detect a virus, remove and destroy the plants, then replace the plants with varieties that are labeled resistant to mosaic virus. Reduce the chance of powdery mildew by watering only the soil, not the leaves, and leave plenty of room between plants to promote air circulation.

Harvesting Cucumbers

Harvest cukes at any size, but pick them before they grow to a baseball bat size. Leaving large fruits on the vines signals the plant to stop producing. Snip cucumbers instead of pulling them off the vines. Because vines often set new roots, any disruption to the vine can damage those roots.

Growing your own cucumbers is the way to go to get the freshest flavor to your table. Whether you choose to grow cucumbers for pickling or slicing, it's a simple and convenient process that is sure to produce plenty of fruits in various shapes and sizes.

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