The time it takes for a tree to reach maturity depends on many factors, not the least of which is genetics. Some trees are slow growers (20-30 years to reach full size) and some are fast (10-15 years). Red maple (Acer rubrum) is a moderately fast grower; given good growing conditions, it should put on 1-2 feet of growth per year once established.
The better the growing conditions you've given it, the happier it will be and the faster it will grow. First choose a planting location with full sun and good drainage. Then help the tree get established with deep and consistent watering for the first 3 years. As it gets older, annual mulching and supplemental watering in drought times will boost its growth rate as well.