Tomato

Tomato
Plant Type
Sunlight Amount
tomatoes
Credit: Greg Ryan
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tomatoes

Tomato

Tomatoes are one of the easiest vegetables to grow. Provide them with at least 8 hours of bright sunlight and a well-drained planting spot and you’ll enjoy your own juicy harvest. In recent years plant breeders focused on producing small tomato plants that boast a prolific harvest. Grape and cherry tomato cultivars bred specifically for containers and small spaces make growing these essential summer fruits possible on balconies, patios, and any other place that receives plenty of sunlight. Get ready for a great harvest.

genus name
  • Solanum lycopersicum
light
  • Sun
plant type
  • Vegetable
height
  • 1 to 3 feet
  • 3 to 8 feet
width
  • 1-4 feet
zones
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8
  • 9
  • 10
  • 11
propagation

Tomato Cultivars

Visiting the tomato section of a garden center can be overwhelming. Don't let the multitude of cultivars intimidate you. First, focus on how you are going to use your tomato harvest. Do you plan to eat fruit fresh? If so would you like a bite-size tomato? Or a slicing tomato? If you are planning to preserve some of your harvest, look for a roma-type tomato. Most tomato-loving gardeners like to plant a cherry or grape tomato as well as a couple of large slicing types.

Plum or roma tomatoes, with their meaty flesh, are perfect for salsa, sauce, and canning.

Once you decide what types of tomatoes you are searching for, consider the various cultivars. At the garden center you'll find traditional cultivars, bred for their fruit size and quantity, as well as disease-resistance and ease of care. You'll also find heirloom cultivars that might not boast good disease-resistance and productivity, but their flavor is exceptional. If you have space, select a few different cultivars and enjoy the diversity.

Tomato Plant Care Must-Knows

Tomatoes are easy to start from seed indoors but many people choose to begin with transplants purchased at a local nursery. To start tomatoes from seed, plant seeds in a seed-starting mix indoors 6 to 8 weeks before the last frost date in your area. Provide bright light for the seedlings and water regularly. When seedlings are several inches tall, move them outside during the day to acclimate them to garden conditions. Move the seedlings indoors at night. After the last frost date passes, seedlings can be transplanted outdoors.

Tomatoes are warm-season plants. They grow and produce fruit when temperatures are above 60°F. Wait to plant tomatoes in the garden until night temperatures regularly stay above 55°F. Choose a planting place that receives full sun and has moist, well-drained soil. Spread a 2-inch-thick layer of mulch over the root zone to maintain even soil moisture. Water plants during extended dry periods.

Tomatoes benefit from staking at planting time. Place a strong stake near the base of the plant and use soft twine or cloth to loosely tie the main plant stem to the stake as the tomato grows. Wire cages are also useful for keeping plants upright. Put the cage in place at planting time and thread stems through the cage as the plant grows.

Grow great tomatoes in containers by following the same planting and staking tips discussed above. Choose a high-quality potting soil and a pot that is at least 15 inches in diameter. Container-grown tomato plants require daily watering during hot weather, but the sweet juicy fruit is worth the effort. Look for plants that are specially bred for container growing, such as 'Bush Early Girl,' 'Patio Princess,' and 'Fantastico.'

Harvesting Tomatoes

Pick fruits when they are firm, full size, and fully colored. Tomatoes will ripen when harvested at their green mature stage, but flavor will not be as good. Harvest all except the greenest fruits before a killing frost and take them indoors at 60° to 65° F to ripen. You can also harvest green tomatoes for pickling and frying.

Types of Tomatoes

There are many new tomato varieties brought to the market each year. Varying by color, shape, size, and flavor, new tomato cultivars often boast excellent disease-resistance, too. Check with your local garden center for recommended varieties in your region. Here are a few recent introductions.

More Varieties of Tomatoes

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Bush Big Boy Hybrid tomatoes
Credit: Dean Schoeppner

'Bush Big Boy Hybrid'

combines classic 'Big Boy' size and flavor with a plant half the size of its namesake. The 10-ounce fruits ripen in 72 days.

Black Cherry tomatoes
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'Black Cherry'

is an heirloom selection with blackish-red skin and flesh. The 2- to 3-ounce fruits are slightly larger than most cherry tomatoes. 65 days.

Costoluto Genovese tomatoes
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'Costoluto Genovese'

is an heirloom variety from Italy that has ribbed red fruits to 5 ounces that are packed with rich flavor. 78 days.

Green Sausage tomatoes
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'Green Sausage'

is a unique heirloom variety that has elongated green fruits striped with yellow. The fruits have a sweet flavor, and the plants have a compact, bushy habit. 80 days.

Green Zebra tomatoes
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'Green Zebra'

is a small-fruited indeterminate selection grown for its unique green-and-amber striped fruits with a sweet but tangy flavor. The 3-ounce fruits ripen in 75 days.

Italian Sweet tomatoes
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'Italian Sweet'

is an heirloom variety that produces very large beefsteak-type fruits that have a very sweet flavor. 85 days.

Jet Star Hybrid tomatoes
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'Jet Star Hybrid'

is a midseason selection that produces 8-ounce round red fruits with firm meat and good flavor. The indeterminate plant begins bearing 72 days after planting.

Juliet Hybrid tomatoes
Credit: Jason Donnelly

'Juliet Hybrid'

is an award-winning selection bearing clusters of fruit on an indeterminate plant. It is crack-resistant and tolerant of late blight and leaf spot diseases. 60 days.

Moskvich tomatoes
Credit: RJT LLC

'Moskvich'

is a red-fruited indeterminate heirloom type with good cold tolerance. The 4- to 6-ounce round fruits are tasty and early to bear. 60 days.

Mountain Gold tomatoes
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'Mountain Gold'

bears lots of large 12-ounce golden-yellow fruits on a determinate plant. They offer good disease resistance and resist cracking. 71 days.

Patio tomatoes
Credit: Peter Krumhardt

'Patio'

bears flavorful 3-ounce red fruits on a 2-foot-tall plant, making it an ideal variety for growing in containers. 70 days.

Pompeii tomatoes
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'Pompeii'

is an indeterminate paste variety with larger (4- to 6-ounce) fruits than 'Roma'. It holds well in storage, and its flavor is good for fresh eating. 76 days.

Red Currant tomatoes
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'Red Currant'

bears tiny 1/2-ounce fruits that burst with flavor. The vigorous vine begins producing in 75 days.

Red Zebra tomatoes
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'Red Zebra'

is an heirloom selection that produces red 3-ounce fruits striped in yellow. It's very productive and quite sweet. 80 days.

Roma tomatoes
Credit: Greg Ryan

'Roma'

is the standard paste variety. Its oblong 2- to 3-ounce, thick, meaty, red fruits require less cooking to make a thick sauce. Plants are determinate. 78 days.

Ruffled Yellow tomatoes
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'Ruffled Yellow'

is an heirloom variety with an unusual pleated shape that makes them perfect for stuffing. The yellow fruits reach 4 inches wide and have a sweet taste. 80 days.

Speckled Roman tomatoes
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'Speckled Roman'

is an eye-catching variety that bears elongated fruits that are 3 inches wide and 5 inches long. Each tomato is orange with bold yellow stripes. 85 days.

Striped German tomatoes
Credit: RJT LLC

'Striped German'

is an heirloom type with yellow and green skin and red marbled flesh; the fruits can reach 1-2 pounds each. It is an indeterminate tomato. 78 days.

Sun Gold tomatoes
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'Sun Gold'

bears sweet orange-gold fruits that mature in 57 days from planting. It grows on a vigorous indeterminate vine.

Sweet Million tomatoes
Credit: Jason Donnelly

'Sweet Million'

has better crack tolerance and disease resistance than its predecessor, 'Sweet 100'. It is a prolific producer of 1- to 2-ounce round red fruits. 65 days.

Valencia tomatoes
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'Valencia'

is an heirloom variety suited to cool climates. It bears a complex flavor and meaty orange fruits to 10 ounces. 80 days.

Yellow Pear tomatoes
Credit: Cameron Sadeghpour

'Yellow Pear'

produces attractive pear-shape fruits that are great for snacking or to add color to salads. It is an heirloom variety that has stood the test of time. 78 days.

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