Spruce Tree Overview

Description Both graceful and boldly upright, spruce takes on many different shapes in the landscape. Choose an upright cultivar, such as a 'Columnar' Norway spruce, and plant as a living screen near a property line. Go with a cultivar with curved branches, such as a 'Wells' Weeper' spruce as a statement plant in a landscape. The evergreen character of these small-to-large trees makes them year-round contributors to the landscape. Garden in a small space? Select a dwarf cultivar or a shrub cultivar.
Genus Name Picea
Common Name Spruce Tree
Plant Type Shrub, Tree
Light Sun
Height 20 to 20 feet
Width 20 to 30 feet
Foliage Color Blue/Green
Season Features Winter Interest
Special Features Attracts Birds, Fragrance, Good for Containers
Zones 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Propagation Grafting, Seed, Stem Cuttings
Problem Solvers Deer Resistant, Good For Privacy, Slope/Erosion Control

Garden Plans For Spruce

Woody Corner
Shared Garden
Privacy Garden
Property Line Bed
Season-Long Plan
Season-Long Plan

Where to Plant

The key to success when planting a spruce tree is to select the right growing site. Native to cool climates and dry air, spruce often languishes in hot, humid climates. Choose a planting site that has full sun exposure and rich, moist, well-drained soil. Spruce tolerates short periods of drought after it is established. Look for a planting site that has good air circulation. Anywhere with limited air movement has the potential to create a moist, humid environment that paves the way for disease.

Find an evergreen variety for every purpose.

Spruce Care Must-Knows

Plant spruce in spring or early summer. Avoid planting in the heat of summer as it can stress a newly planted spruce, and then the tree won't establish a good root system, or worse, it may succumb to drought and heat stress. Also, do not plant spruces in fall in cold climates. Spruces need several months to develop a strong root system before a cold, dry winter sets in. Trees planted in fall are more susceptible to drying winter winds.

Water spruces regularly during the first season after planting. Continue watering as necessary during extended dry periods. Blanket the ground around plants with a 2-inch-thick layer of mulch to help conserve soil moisture.

Brush up on your basics with this tree and shrub care guide.

Beware of Spruce Decline

Common across all types of spruces, but most prevalent on Colorado types, spruce decline is generally characterized by branch die back over a period of two to four years. Often visible on the lowest branches first, needles fall off and the plant takes on a thin appearance. By year three and four most of the low braches are dead. These symptoms have a host of insect and disease causes. A professional arborist or tree care company can diagnosis the specific cause and prescribe treatment. Not all spruce decline pests and diseases can be successfully treated.

The best way to prevent spruce decline is to plant trees on sites with conditions they favor. Full sun is essential. Good air circulation and excellent soil drainage is important, too.

More Varieties of Spruce

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