How to Use Grow Lights for the Healthiest Indoor Garden
While many houseplants do just fine indoors with whatever natural light comes in your windows, certain ones can be coaxed to bloom more reliably or will grow more healthy leaves with additional light from artificial sources. And if you're starting vegetable and annual flower seeds inside, they often need the help of lights to develop properly. While the amazing power of sunlight is tough to completely replicate indoors, using grow light fixtures fitted with simple fluorescent or LED bulbs can come close. Here's what you need to know about setting up the best grow light systems for your houseplants and seedlings.
Using Grow Lights for Seedlings
Bright lighting is key to getting a jump start on spring transplants indoors. Most rooms do not provide enough light to produce dense, healthy seedlings. Even a south-facing window often falls short when it comes to the amount of time the sunlight can shine through. Seedlings will usually germinate well and produce their first set of leaves in a sunny window. But then the “stretch” begins as stems reach desperately for more light to fuel their rapid growth.
Prevent leggy plants by growing seedlings under artificial light created by standard shop lights ($15, Walmart) outfitted with fluorescent tubes or energy-efficient LED bulbs. These bright lights provide a combination of blue and red light waves necessary for good plant growth. Look for bulbs that are "full-spectrum," which plants need.
Using Grow Lights for Houseplants and Herbs
Illuminating your favorite blooming houseplant, such as African violet, will encourage the plant to come into bloom more than it would in just natural indoor light. Likewise, you can use artificial lighting to keep up your harvests of basil, rosemary, parsley, and other greens that are easy to grow indoors during long winter months.
Red light waves spur flowering and fruit production for houseplants and edibles. Choose a light source that provides plenty of red-wave-rich light. For example, warm-white light is deemed 2,700K to 3,200K on the Kelvin color temperature scale and is rich in red wave light. Look for the Kelvin rating of a bulb on the product packaging.
How Many Hours Should Grow Lights Be On?
Illuminate interior plants for 12-14 hours a day. If you keep the lights on for 16-18 hours a day, flowering plants will likely bloom sooner. Seedlings grow best when supplied with light around the clock. Leaving the lights on 24 hours a day compensates for the lower light level of the artificial light as compared to sunlight. This is when more energy-efficient LED bulbs pay off. Although more expensive to purchase up front, LED bulbs use less power to run and last longer than fluorescent bulbs. A simple mechanical timer ($6, Target) will make using grow lights easier and more efficient, too.
Tips for Using Grow Lights
Artificial lighting must be very close to plants to be effective. As the rays of light move away from the source, they dim significantly. Keeping lamps close to plants increases the amount of light received which keeps transplants compact, preventing long, weak stems. Position lights 6 inches or so above transplants, moving them up as the plants grow to maintain the 6-inch source-to-plant distance. Indoor plants and edibles grow best when they are within 12 inches or so of the light source.
There are many types of specially designed lights and fixtures for growing plants indoors. A simple set up with fluorescent or LED bulbs ($45, The Home Depot) is perfectly fine for growing seedlings to transplant into your garden. Blooming indoor plants and food crops will benefit from specially designed LED grow lights.