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1. Sift flours together on a large work surface to form a mound. Make a well in the center. Pour 1/4 cup water into the well then add the salt. Using a fork, slowly swirl flours into the water, beginning with inner rim of well, until a dough begins to form. Continue adding water by the tablespoon until dough comes together (count on using nearly the whole 1 cup). Gather dough together to form a rounded mass. Knead with the heels of your hand, about 10 minutes, lightly dusting surface with flour to prevent sticking. Divide dough in half and wrap each half in plastic wrap. Let rest for 1 hour.
2. Cut each dough in half again. Working with one piece at a time, roll dough to 1/4-inch thickness. Cut dough in 1-inch strips, then with the palms of your hands roll each strip to make 1/2-inch-thick ropes. Lay ropes on the countertop and roll with palms to an even diameter. Cut ropes crosswise in 1/2-inch pieces; lightly dust with flour.
3. To form the cavatelli, place a piece of dough on the ridged side of a cavatelli paddle then press with two fingers as you roll the dough downward. Each cavatelli should have a ridge on one side and a depression on the opposite side. Place cavatelli on a floured baking sheet. Cover with plastic wrap or a damp towel until ready to cook.
4. Cook cavatelli in boiling lightly salted water about 3 minutes, or until they float, and until pasta is just tender to the bite (al dente). Drain, reserving 1/2 cup cooking liquid.
5. Meanwhile, in a food processor, process bread until coarse crumbs form. In a large skillet, heat 1 tablespoon of the oil over medium-high heat. Add bread crumbs; cook and stir about 5 minutes, until golden. Remove from skillet and set aside.
6. Add remaining oil to skillet; heat over medium-high heat. Add garlic and crushed red pepper; cook and stir for 30 seconds. Add shrimp. Cook and stir about 3 minutes, until shrimp are opaque. Add arugula; cook just until wilted. To serve, spoon shrimp and arugula over cavatelli. Sprinkle with toasted bread crumbs and serve with ricotta salata.