A bisque is a rich, thick, smooth soup that's often made with shellfish, such as lobster or shrimp.
A chowder is a thick, chunky soup. Traditionally, a chowder is made with seafood or fish, but chowders made with poultry, vegetables, and cheese have become popular.
Stock or broth is a strained, thin, clear liquid in which meat, poultry, or fish has been simmered with vegetables and herbs. While normally used as an ingredient in other soups, it can be enjoyed as a light course on its own.
Bouillon is basically the same as broth, but the term refers to commercial dehydrated products sold as granules or cubes.
Consomme is a strong, flavorful meat or fish broth that has been clarified.