Marinades generally consist of cooking oil; an acidic liquid, such as vinegar, wine, tomato, or citrus juice (or a natural enzyme, such as ginger or pineapple); and variety of flavorings, including garlic, molasses, honey, fresh or dried herbs, and spices. The acids help the marinade soften tough cuts of meat; the oils moisten the meat and add flavor. Salt can also be used to both flavor and tenderize the meat.
How Long to Marinate?
Tender cuts of meat need up to 2 hours of soaking time. Less tender cuts of meat require 4 to 24 hours, but don't overdo it. Meats and poultry marinated for more than 24 hours can turn mushy. Marinate fish for just a few hours; if left any longer, the acidic ingredients will begin to "cook" it and make it tough. Food should be cooked immediately after marinating. Marinating does not extend the shelf life of food, which includes the day of purchase and thawing time.
These tips will help you marinate your food safely:
- Marinate foods in the refrigerator; do not leave them out on the kitchen counter. Place them on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator to rule out any possible leaks or spills onto the foods below.
- Do not return cooked meat to the unwashed plate you used to carry the raw marinated meat to the oven or grill. Marinated meat is still raw and should be handled accordingly.
- Never reuse marinades to prevent the risk of contamination that can lead to food-borne illnesses. Before adding marinade to the raw meat, set some aside to use for basting or as a table sauce.