Cook pasta according to package instructions, adding broccoli the last 3 minutes; drain.
Meanwhile, in a 12-inch skillet heat olive oil over medium-high heat. Add onion and 1/2 teaspoon salt. Reduce heat to medium; cook about 5 minutes more or until onion is tender.
Increase heat to high; add pasta, broccoli, beans, chicken broth, reserved bean liquid, and chili powder to pan. Cook over high heat for 2 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add cheese and parsley. Cook and stir until cheese is melted.