Budgeting 101: What Everyone Needs to Know
It's time to get your home finances in order by setting up your own budget. With these simple steps and helpful tips, it's easier than you think to make a spending plan that works for you.
Budgeting isn't just about the money: it's about your priorities. Surprised? Many people think that creating a budget means obsessively tracking where you've spent every penny. But all that tells you is where your money has gone. It doesn't tell you where your money should go in the future, and why.
A budget is a spending plan that you design to meet your personal needs. Is getting out of debt your biggest goal? Give it plenty of room in your budget. Do you want to buy a house? Up your monthly savings target. Do you love to travel? You can choose where to cut back to fund a special trip. Your budget can be incredibly powerful, because it serves as a guide for your everyday financial decisions and ensures that you have enough cash for what matters to you.
Our 10-step guide shows you how it's done. All you need is a little time, and a pen and paper, spreadsheet, or online tool to do the numbers.
1. Set your priorities.
Your money should go towards what matters. What three goals are most important to you right now? It doesn't matter if it's educating your kids, renovating your house, or losing weight: it all gets factored into the budget. So write it down.
2. Gather your documents.
Look online, or go through that stack of mail and papers. Collect your recent pay stubs, credit card statements, bank statements, mortgage bills, utility bills, rent statements, insurance bills, and any other documents that show your income or spending.
3. Calculate your monthly income after taxes.
To spend money, you need to have money. Write down exactly how much you make each month after taxes (since taxes are an ongoing cost you can't control). If you don't know how much you earn, pull out those pay stubs! If you get paid twice a month, calculate your monthly income by doubling the after-tax number. And, if your income is irregular, look up your last tax return and divide what you reported by 12, or estimate the minimum you will earn over the next year and divide that by 12. Don't forget to include income from rent, dividends, alimony, tips, or other sources. Finally, write down the total.
4. Add back automatic deductions.
Don't forget about the money coming back to you! Does your employer deduct retirement contributions or health insurance costs from your paycheck? Add those back to your monthly income number, and account for them in your budget.
5. Create the big three buckets.
Time to simplify your spending. Decide how much of your income to allocate to each of three big categories: needs, wants, and savings. Financial experts usually recommend saving at least 10 percent of your income. If you don't have an emergency fund or retirement savings, bump that up to at least 20 percent. Allocate 50 to 60 percent of your income to needs like housing, food, education, and transportation. The rest goes towards things that you want, but aren't strictly necessary, like movies and new shoes. Calculate the dollar figure for each spending bucket.
6. Divide it up.
Now comes the heavy lifting (but no need to fear!): Create your detailed spending list. Keeping your priorities in mind, estimate how much money should be devoted to each thing in your "needs" bucket (rent, health insurance, gas, cellphone ...) and your "wants" bucket (clothes, cosmetics, dinners out, magazines). Only one rule applies: You can't plan to spend more than your monthly income. See? That wasn't too hard, right?
7. Compare and adjust.
This is your reality check. Take a close look at the spending plan you just made, and compare it to the documents you collected. If you left out a major expense, add it to the budget. If you've allocated $100 to dining out but spent $600 last month, you need to adjust your food budget or stay out of restaurants. Consider where you're wasting money: Every dollar you save on bank fees can go towards that new sofa.
8. Set up your system.
It's one thing to create a budget and another to stick to it. Make it easier by automating as much as possible. Have your bank or employer deduct retirement savings each month. Set up online bill paying so you don't need to balance a checkbook or hunt for stamps. If you're more comfortable with an old-fashioned system like keeping envelopes for different expenses, set it up! Basically, find a way that works for you, and you'll be more likely to stick with the budget.
9. Check back in.
Your goal is to have your spending roughly match your spending plan. Once a month, spend 15 minutes reviewing your goals and your outflows. Adjust accordingly.
You won't have to start from scratch this time, though! Once a year, revisit your priorities and your budget, to make sure it still works for where you are in life. Make changes as needed, and keep going!