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Toad Lily

Tricyrtis

Toad lilies bring an exotic flair to any fall garden. While almost all other shade plants have finished blooming and are about to head to bed for the winter, toad lilies are just beginning to show off. Their flowers are beautiful, and the plants themselves have graceful arching habits along with often variegated or spotted foliage to accompany the dainty blooms.

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Light:

Part Sun, Shade

Type:

Height:

1 to 3 feet

Width:

1 to 2 feet

Flower Color:

Foliage Color:

Seasonal Features:

Problem Solvers:

Zones:

4-9

Colorful Combinations

Toad lily plants are a welcome sight, especially in late summer. Blooms of the toad lily are such unique-looking flowers that you simply have to stop and check them out. The flowers are composed of 6 tepals, which are flower parts that look too similar to decide whether they are sepals or petals. In some species, these 6 tepals are fused at the base, creating a tubular blossom. These beautifully intricate blooms often come in whites, yellows, purples, or soft pinks, but are typically spotted in varying degrees of these colors, creating unique effects on the petals. The blooms are born much later than many other shade plants, starting in late summer into the fall.

The foliage of these plants can also be very beautiful. Most commonly, the foliage is held on arching stalks and comes in a rich medium green, but this Asian native can also be found in many variegated forms too. Many of the variegated varieties feature gold foliage with speckles or edges of another color. Look for the gold varieties to brighten up shady garden corners, even when not in bloom.

See more plants great for the Midwest.

Toad Lily Care Must-Knows

Toad lily plants require little garden maintenance, but the most important factor to consider is water. These plants are native to the edges of woodlands and around creeks, performing best in rich, moist, well-drained soils. If your soils are too dry and heavy, consider adding peat moss and compost to your garden beds before planting. This will add nutrients as well as increase the water-holding capacity, creating a better home for toad lilies. Some species of toad lily can handle short droughts, but the foliage and overall health of the plants may begin to decline if the drought persists for too long. It is best to add supplemental water during dry spells.

You might be able to guess how much sun they prefer based on their native environment. These plants love morning sun and afternoon shade, but dappled shade throughout the day works just as well. A few varieties may be able to take full sun, but only if well watered. Even then, foliage may scorch. In too-dense shade, variegated and gold varieties may fade to more of a green color, and blooms may be less numerous.

Bold Woodland Garden Plan

New Innovations

Toad lilies are still a fairly recent introduction to the U.S. garden world. These plants all come from East Asia, and they weren't used in ornamental gardens until the mid-'90s when they became available at specialty nurseries. Since then, a few hybrids and cultivars have been created with larger blooms, unique patterns, and interesting foliage colors. This is definitely a plant to watch, as it still has a long way to go in the ornamental world.

More Varieties of Toad Lily

Common toad lily

Tricyrtis hirta is soft and fuzzy with hairs. Its arching stems bear clusters of upright flowers. The orchid-like blooms are white with dark purple spots. It grows to 3 feet tall. Zones 4-9

'Tojen' toad lily

Tricyrtis 'Tojen' bears unspotted lavender flowers in early fall on tall, 3-foot stems. It's more vigorous than many other toad lilies. Zones 4-8

'White Towers' toad lily

Tricyrtis 'White Towers' bears pure-white flowers in late summer and fall on 2-foot-tall stems. Zones 4-8

Plant Toad Lily With:

Lilyturf
Used often as a groundcover or an edging plant, liriope is popular for good reason. It stays green year-round in many climates, produces pretty blue or white flowers, and is about as tough a plant as you'll hope to meet. Its dense tufts of almost evergreen, broadly grassy leaves are often striped. Stiff stems bear tight spikes of tiny blue or white bells, similar to those of grape hyacinth. It is best protected from drying winds in rich, well-drained soil that retains moisture.
Anemone
Anemones are lovely, delicate flowers that dance atop slender stems, giving them their poetic common name—windflower. Depending on the type, anemones bloom in spring, summer, or through fall with pretty, slightly cupped flowers in rose, pink, or white rising over distinctive, deeply lobed foliage. Plants grow best in partial shade but tolerate full sun in Northern regions. In some cases, you may need to divide plants frequently to prevent them from overtaking neighboring perennials.
Allium
Alliums may be in the onion family, but these top-notch garden plants are anything but utilitarian vegetable-garden residents. Among the most carefree bulbs you can grow, alliums bloom in a wide range of colors (including shades of yellow, white, pink, and purple), seasons, and sizes (from inch-wide heads to volleyball-size bloom clusters). Alliums offer whimsical structures and great textural contrasts unique to the late-spring bulb garden. Clustered florets in a globe-shape flower head are held aloft on a thick stem. In the species, loose bouquets of flowers sprout from clustered, hollow stems. The larger allium flower heads are fun focal points for dried arrangements. Plant alliums in any well-drained garden soil in full sun. The smaller types are especially well suited for growing in rock gardens. Plant a few larger hybrids in a pot for a flowering surprise in early summer.
Aster
Asters get their name from the Latin word for "star," and their flowers are indeed the superstars of the fall garden. Some types of this native plant can reach up to 6 feet with flowers in whites and pinks but also, perhaps most strikingly, in rich purples and showy lavenders. Not all asters are fall bloomers. Extend the season by growing some of the summer bloomers as well. Some are naturally compact; tall types that grow more than 2 feet benefit from staking or an early season pinching or cutting back by about one-third in July to keep the plant more compact.
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