Thanks for writing. I don't typically recommend fast-growing plants because as a general rule, the faster it grows, the weaker its wood is and the more susceptible it is to storm damage or attack by diseases or insects.
That said, some of my favorite large trees for the Midwest include:
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum),
red maple (Acer rubrum),
river birch (Betula nigra),
katsura (Cercidiphyllum japonicum),
honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos),
Kentucky coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioica),
dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides),
white oak (Quercus alba),
Bur oak (Quercus macrocapra),
and American linden (Tilia americana).
Use our online Plant Encyclopedia [link at the top of the page] to learn more about these great trees!
---Justin, Senior Garden Editor, BHG.com"