You might not be able to get a tree that meets every requirement on your wish list. The problem is that anything that grows fast is not going to be long-lived or safe in the long term (because quick growth means a weaker trunk, roots, and branches). I would suggest you think about long-term shade and safety and avoid fast-growing trees such as poplars, willows, or silver maples. How about a red oak (Quercus rubra)? This might be the perfect tree for you. It has a moderate growth rate and transplants well. It also is a good shade tree with dense foliage.
Another swamp maple, also called red maple (Acer rubrum), might be the answer. A selection called 'Franksred' (Red Sunset) is a good possibility. It grows relatively fast for a maple, is drought tolerant, and also has a dense habit. Be sure to match your selection with the environmental conditions of your yard. Check with your local cooperative extension service for suggested shade trees, or ask a nursery professional for recommenda-tions of shade trees that grow well in your locale.